Mechanism between Ethical Leadership and Workplace Bullying: Mediating Role of Resilience and Moderating Role of Islamic Work Ethics
Workplace bullying has become a major challenge for organizations across the globe as it relates to long-term negative workplace outcomes. Past studies have identified leadership as a predictor of reducing workplace bullying, however, studies on the mechanism between the same are scant. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine the mediating role of resilience and the moderating role of Islamic work ethics between ethical leadership and workplace bullying. The data for this study were collected from nurses working in the Pakistani healthcare sector as they are the victims of bullying because of a number of reasons. First, In Pakistan, patient/nurse ratio is very high (a single nurse has to face almost 25 patients). Second, doctor to nurse ratio is also very high (1:5). The study collected data from 284 nurses of both public and private sector hospitals through a questionnaire-based survey. Hypotheses of the study were examined through structural equation modeling using AMOS and the results revealed a negative impact of ethical leader on bullying. In addition, resilience was noted as explanatory variable and Islamic work ethics was noted to weaken the association between ethical leader and bullying. Most of the nurses’ staff in Pakistan are female, so results may be gender-biased. The model of this study is based on social learning theory and Islamic work ethics has not previously been studied in this perspective.