Threats to Various Components of Human Security Cause Brain Drain in Pakistan

  • Syed Sibtain Hussain Shah Assistant Professor, Department of International Relations, National University of Modern Languages (NUML), Islamabad, Pakistan.
  • Arshad Mehmood Assistant Professor, NUST Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies, National University of Science and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Keywords: Human Insecurity, Economic Security, Political Security, Brain Drain, Pakistan


The aim of this scientific paper is to investigate different aspects of insecurity which cause the brain drain in Pakistan, witnessing numerous challenges to the human security for a long time. The research encompasses the period from 2000 to 2021 covering various threats to human protections such as personal, community, economic and political securities in the country.  The authors applied process tracing method of qualitative approach under applied research model for examining chains of the events related to absence of human security causing brain drain in Pakistan.  The secondary data was used to extensively probe the issues concerning brain drain and its reasons. The study identified the aforementioned characteristics of the human insecurity which exacerbate the brain drain in Pakistan. For example personal security which became under threats due to rising violent extremism and terrorism in the post 2000 era. The community security as a part of human security, also faced threats from the violent extermist and militant organizations. The economic insecurity was  aggravated by inequitable socio- economic conditions in the country, which trigger brain drain among unemployed youth. The country’s political system as a part of political security faced instability and insecurity due to conflictual political environment in the country.